- Dr. Fr. Davis George, Principal, St. Aloysius College, Jabalpur, 482001

Two of the greatest gifts we can give our children are roots and wings.
-          Hodding Carter

1. Introduction: Erosion of Human Values

Drugs, kidnapping, stealing, beating, bullying, sexual abuse, violence are the many things that jeopardize the future of our youth, calling for alarm signals. Early influences play lasting roles in lives of kids. There has been a new light on bad habits that shape their character.  Youth grow up in a contemporary society which calls for an ever increasing ability to endure anxiety, overcome doubts, tolerate tension, resolve conflicts, reduce frustrations, manage stress and avoid peer and external pressures.

The erosion of human values in our society today, has become a phenomenon.  There is a maddening pursuit to accumulate wealth, power and status to the total exclusion of humanness in us.   A large number of our students are gripped with the pernicious fear of failure and inadequacy.  Failure in exams forces a number of school children to commit suicide; that number tends to increase year after year.  The tendency spreads to smaller children too.  Here, failure in exams becomes a personality-failure for the student, damages his self-image or shatters it.  Injured self-image drives the student to lies, alibis (excuses), pleasing, bribing and grovelling.  Many students seek help from psychiatrists.  Students show, the number of such students have increased by around 10% in towns, by 30% in cities like Madras and by 50% in cities like Bangalore.  The most common symptoms of such students are: depression, withdrawal, avoiding school, anxiety, etc.  These findings are revealing.

The Upnishads taught us the ideal of Vasudhaiva kutumbkam (the entire world is my family), yet today we fight among ourselves in the name of religion, region or race.  The mosques, the temples, the churches, the gurudwaras or other religion related structures are sought to be made more significant and focus of attention by vested interests than the grinding poverty of the Indian people, abysmal standards of nutrition, social injustice and famines.  We may resort to fast unto death, for example, to get cow slaughter banned but remain unconcerned or unmoved by the acute suffering of our people resulting from hunger, disease, malnutrition and even communal hatred.

Jainism and Patanjali Yoga teach us the ideal of Aprarigrahah (non-hoarding) but we are busy in accumulating colossal wealth and display a lust for power and status (gaddi).  The religious scriptures teach us the lofty doctrine of Ahimsa, yet most of our violence is perpetrated in the name of religion itself. We have no compassion for the millions of destitutes dying on the roadside in our metropolis.  In the name of religion we massacre people to serve our expediency rather than policy.  In public life we advocate rationality, democracy, secularism and scientific temper, but in our private life we follow blind rituals, guided by superstitions and orthodoxy and communal considerations. We theorize in social equity and yet, shamefully though, a large section of our people still continue to be treated as untouchables.  We politically profess democratic and secular values but exploit people on the basis of regionalism or casteism.  We teach theories of social justice but never practice them.  While we preach lofty ideals, our actions betray the basic form of duplicity and hypocrisy, creating a void between values enshrined and values practiced.  And there the situation is marked by violence, greed, rapes, thefts, bank robbery, drug addiction, terrorism, etc.  Our institutions of learning are no doubt preparing efficient individuals but not good citizens or human beings. As it is said ours is a world of nuclear giants and ethical infants.  We are still victims of the the Seven Sins, as given by Mahatma Gandhi:Politics without Principle, Wealth without Work, Pleasure without Conscience, Knowledge without Character, Commerce without Morality, Science without Humanity, Worship without Sacrifice”.

The only solution to this socio-moral imbroglio lies in value based education - education that is rightly conceived and properly practiced, an education that is value based.  It is almost axiomatic that value education or more so moral education constitutes the sine qua non of education as such.  Without a moral base education is nothing but literacy.  Under such a situation, therefore, a case for value education becomes imperative, indispensable and inescapable.

2. Education for Transformation

Swami Vivekananda, an exponent of modern India, viewed education as “the manifestation of divine perfection already existing in man”.  “The highest education is that which does not merely give us information, but makes our life in harmony with all existence” says Rabindranath Tagore, the eminent educationist. According to J. Krishnamurthi, the great philosopher, “Education is not to imitate but to discover for oneself what is true”. In the words of Ashoka the Great, “India’s conquest is through Dharma or righteousness.”  The Rig Veda gives us two goals of life i.e., we must work for the liberation of our souls, but also must pay our debt to the society.  Truth and beauty are the keynotes of Indian civilization.    ‘I learn as long as I live’, said Sri Rama Krishna Paramahamsa. Gandhiji had a similar view on education.  He said, “Unless the development of mind and body goes hand in hand with a corresponding awakening of the soul, the former alone would prove to be a poor lopsided affair.  By spiritual training, I mean education of the heart”.  

Dr. S. Radhakrishnan said: “The three things - vital dynamism, intellectual efficiency and spiritual direction together constitute the proper aim of education.  Moral and spiritual training is an essential part of education”.  Swami Vivekananda had proclaimed: “We must have life-building, man-making, character building education.” Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore had a vision for such an education: “Education must aim at the development of moral, spiritual and ethical values and we should seek them in our own heritage as well as in other cultures and civilizations...It should be such that Indians do not lose sight of their rich heritage – their thought must be rooted to the ideals set forth in the great writing and works of our sages, poets and philosophers.  The noble goals and high values set forth in our precious culture must be adhered to.” The need to sustain this ethos in the emerging context has also been highlighted in the reports of various committees.

Education brings about transformation in the person.  Real education liberates.  Thus education of those times led to enlightenment.  As a result, the educated ones in that system were men who were not merely men of knowledge, but also men of great character.  The system of education produced best human beings full of love, compassion, self-confidence, self-reliance, fearlessness and a spirit of service.  Thus, in ancient India, education was indissolubly connected with such a culture.

Unfortunately education today is being measured in terms of total marks secured and merit positions acquired and awards the child has obtained.  It is observed that students identify their whole efforts at educating themselves with marks secured in the examination.  But marks obtained in the examination may not mirror the personality and character they possess.  Values one upholds are far more precious than mere marks obtained in the examination.  Surprisingly, nobody tells this fact to the students these days.

Our system of education at present is examination-oriented - as if we have no education system, but only an examination system.  So far our education has remained a passport to employment only, nothing more, nothing less.  The students are becoming just degree-oriented.  This slowly snatches away the essence of the academic system. One is remained of Eliot’s apprehension of a world where knowledge is overtaken by information. Similarly, passing an eligibility test never means he/she will become a worthy, capable, successful, self-actualizing teacher.  A teacher’s personality is not merely a collection of testimonials and certificates he or she produces. Professional competence is given priority but a professionally competent man without humanitarian values within him cannot contribute to the cause of a healthy nation.

A UNESCO report on Education for 21st Century entitled ‘Learning: The Treasure Within’ also pleads for an education which is ‘rooted to culture and committed to progress’.  It is said that developing a harmonious and integrated personality would just not be possible if the system does not inculcate values of culture, heritage and traditions.  Indian heritage, culture and values need to be thoroughly studied, analysed and incorporated comprehensively in the education system right from the initial stage to higher dimensions of education. This education should result in the transformation of the self and society.
3. VALUE-ORIENTED EDUCATION: Need of the Present Generation

3.1 Value Education: Historical Perspective

From ancient times India has a rich heritage of lofty ideals and values cherished and handed down the centuries. The four "purusarthas" or basic values traditionally recognized in Indian culture are: "Dharma", righteousness, "artha" or material goods, "kama" or satisfaction of primal urges and desires, and "moksha" or final emancipation or perfection of the self. Dharma is considered to be the most important among them because it should govern all others. It stands for the performance of both moral and religious duties. Indian tradition also emphasizes nine other moral virtues: "ahimsa" or non-injury, "satya" or honesty, "asteya" or non-stealing, "sauca" or cleanliness, 'indriyanigraha" or control of the senses, "dana" or charity, "dama" or self-restraint, "daya" or kindness and "ksanti" or forbearance. Our culture upholds and promotes these and many more lofty ideals and values of which we can be proud of. But the crucial question is whether our people really live up to those values or merely pay lip-service to them. What is the reality today in our country? Do we not see a breakdown of our traditional cultural values, held sacred for centuries? Don't we witness a total disregard for values in the public and private life of people?

The need for value education has been emphasized by Education Commissions in the past. Radhakrishnan Commission (1948) stated: “If we exclude spiritual training in our institutions we would be untrue to our whole historical development.”  Sri Prakasa Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction said: “Every effort must, therefore, be made to teach students true moral values from the earliest stages of their educational life.”  Kothari Commission (1964-66) reviewed the system of education in India and observed: “A serious defect in the school system is the absence of provision for education in social, moral and spiritual values.  A national system of education that is related to life, needs and aspirations of the people cannot afford to ignore this purposeful force.” The National Policy on Education (1986 ) reiterated:The growing concern over the erosion of essential values and an increasing cynicism in society has brought to focus the need for readjustments in the curriculum in order to make education a forceful tool for the cultivation of social and moral values.” We read in Programme of Action NPE (1992) “The framework emphasized value education as an integral part of school curriculum.  It highlighted the values drawn from national goals, universal perception, ethical considerations and character building.  It stressed the role of education in combating obscurantism, religious fanaticism, and exploitation and injustice as well as the inculcation of values.” 

The classroom sends messages to the people in the room – messages of love, safety, security, belonging, warmth, messages which say this is a place where the individual is respected and trusted, where human beings may engage in human activity.  In this classroom, learning and living are united.

3.2  Value Clarification

Value means literally something that has a price, something precious, dear, worthwhile and hence something one is ready to suffer and sacrifice for, a reason to live and a reason to die for, if necessary. Values give direction and firmness and bring to life the important dimension of meaning. Hence they bring joy, satisfaction, and peace to life. Values are like the rails that keep a train on the track and help it to move smoothly, quickly and purposefully. Values prove a great source of motivation or movement for the person. Values identify a person, giving him a name, a face and a character. Without values, one floats like a piece of driftwood in the swirling waters of the Ganga or Jamuna, however exciting they may appear to be at first. That is why values are central to one's life, since they are normative in one’s actions and undertakings. They bring quality to life.
The 1983 Report of the ‘Working Group’ of the Central Ministry of Education and Culture, when called upon to clarify the term ‘Value’ responded thus: Value is those desirable ideals and goals which are intrinsic in themselves and. …evoke a deep sense of fulfillment.” Values being “prioritizing choices” as Kluckhorn, the anthropologist, explains, being “preferred choices” as Alport, Vernon and Kindsay assert, being “preferential behaviour” as Morris sees it, they postulate a new concept of relations between Man and Nature, Man and Man, Man and God.  Values quicken the person’s journey from ‘being’ to ‘becoming’, widens his thinking and leads him to build a civilization of love. His values help him see things in the correct perspective, correct himself and act honestly to benefit himself, others, the society and the world.

Concerning moral values, attempts have been made to identify the values of moral education.  The National Institute of Educational Research of Japan has done a commendable job in this regard.  Drawing upon the deliberations of six regional workshops with UNESCO, it has figured out a case of twelve moral values. Caring for others; concern for the welfare of the society, nation and the international community; concern for the environment; concern for cultural heritage; self-esteem and self-reliance; social responsibility; spirituality; peaceful conflict resolution; equality; justice; truth and freedom.

3.3 Value Based Education for Undergraduate Students

Good education is inconceivable if it fails to inculcate values essential to good life and social well-being.  As a general rule therefore value orientation is integral to all stages of upbringing formal education, interaction between individuals and social groups, political behaviour and probity in public administration.  Value education leads to personality development and gets reflected in the professional performance of individuals as well as of service institutions and the production processes of the country’s economy. 

The problem of value education at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels cannot be resolved unless we give it a special recognition in the curriculum of studies.  Since this is a new endeavour it will naturally give rise to administrative problems in every university.  Besides, the initial efforts would have to be concentrated on making the idea itself acceptable to faculty members and students alike.  While it is true that value education must be woven into the texture of college studies, the task of integrating it as a component of every academic discipline will be fraught with difficulties.

These difficulties are not insurmountable once we accept the imperative need to strengthen the moral fibre of the society through the education process at every level. Value education is an attempt to rehabilitate man as an ally of man and the environment in which he can best survive as an enlightened being.  In these introductory pages we can do no more than emphasize two fundamental points regarding the introduction of value education in the colleges.  Firstly, it must find a place in the curriculum of studies as a subject in its own right. Secondly, it should not be demoted to the status of an elective subject.

4. Value Education: Some Priority Areas

Living as we do in a country that is a mosaic of contradictions (modem and backward, very rich and very poor, democratic and feudal, socialist in slogans and capitalist in practice, steeped in religious traditions and notorious for corruption...) we need to challenge and revamp our values. What do we believe in? What values do we live by? What are our priorities? What should be our priorities?

Some areas requiring urgent attention are indicated below:

  1. Education for Peace
    • Communal harmony
    • Tolerance
    • National Integration
  2. Respect for life
·         Fundamental sacredness of life
·         Preventing loss of life.
  1. Justice
    • Direct involvement in the cause of justice
    • Becoming agents of social change
    • The debt owed by the educated to the majority (who are poor), on whose work our opportunities depend.

  1. Issues of Women
    • Change of attitudes towards women
    • Restoring their rightful place in society

  1. Job-Oriented Education
    • Education for self-employment
    • Employment that will generate jobs for others

  1. Faith in God
    • Strengthening the spirit of man
    • Counteracting materialism and consumerism

  1. Self-respect
    • Respect for the given work
    • Cleanliness of our person and surroundings
    • Taking pride in work well done

  1. Initiative and Creativity
·         Not resignation, slavishness and imitation

  1. Democracy
    • Equality of persons before the law
    • Involvement and direct action to get our rights
    • Holding the government accountable

  1. Ecology
    • Responsibility for our land, water, trees…
    • The danger of destroying ourselves
    • The hazards of industrial pollution
    • The ethics of business

  1. The Meaning of  "Success"
    • Is it merely scoring high marks?
    • Is it getting a good job, making money, getting ahead at all costs?

  1. Openness
    • Seeing people of other "groups" as persons like ourselves

  1. Noble Truths of all Religions
    • Being exposed to the teachings and great achievements of the various religions.
    • This diminishes prejudice and promotes respect.

These are some of the priority areas that should be given urgent attention in our value education programmes in the light of the situation of our country today, and the needs of the times.

Values have three anchor bases: First, they are anchored in the 'head'. I perceive, I see reasons why something is valuable, and is so intellectually convinced about the worth I prize so highly. Values have also an anchor base in the 'heart'. Not only the language of the head, but the language of the heart also tells me that something is worthwhile. Not only do I see it as worthwhile but I also feel it as such. When the mind and heart are involved, the whole person is involved, leading to the third anchor base, namely the 'hand' or in other words, values lead to decisions and actions.      

5.  Teacher: Friend, Philosopher and Guide

As it is said, “A Teacher affects eternity”. In our educational system teachers play an important role, irreplaceable by anyone else. As said by Daniel Webster, “If we work upon marble, it will perish; If we work upon brass, time will efface it; if we rear temples, they will crumble to dust; but if we work upon people’s immortal minds, if we imbue them with high principles, with the just fear of God and love of their fellow-beings, we engrave on those tablets something which no time can efface, and which will brighten and brighten to all eternity.”

The teacher has to be more of a facilitator, a catalyst, an agent of transformation. He meets the student who is a person he loves and respects and whose personality he strives to enrich. He is aware that the student is not quite a child nor quite an adult, but one who is in the process of  ‘becoming’.  His talents and abilities, mostly hidden, demand expression.  His powers physical, sexual, emotional, intellectual, spiritual - are seminal but fast growing.  He rebels against all fetters that curb his freedom to choose. 

What are your goals as Facilitator? Firstly, to make the student aware of his talents and abilities and awaken them. As Swami Vivekanand said, “Arise, awake and stop not until the goal is achieved.” Secondly, to make him aware of his fellow-students, his fellow-men, women and children, his neighbours, the less fortunate persons, the poor and the sick, the old and the infirm, the physically or emotionally handicapped, the lonely persons needing companionship.  And develop in him the concern for them and the will to help them in ways he can. Thirdly, to enable him say ‘No’ when he wants to say ‘No’ conscionably, politely and with consistency. Fourthly, to make him aware of the drawbacks and weaknesses of traditional society so that he may choose to be an instrument to convert it into a modern society. Fifthly, helps him to understand the difference of IQ, EQ, SQ. Lastly, to develop in him self-esteem and the ability for self-acceptance after having done SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats) analysis.

To realize the goals of value-education, the Facilitator will have to reach ‘the person’ and ‘touch him’ in-depth and ‘communicate with him on a level of equality and not by lecture method. When you talk to them, use their language, the situations you illustrate shall be from the circle of their experience. Many techniques are there for the Facilitator to choose from.  Some of them are listed here: A scene from a short story, film, novel or drama/a poem/Multiple choice questions/Ranking/Case history/Quiz/Completing a story/ Drama/ Role play/story-writing/writing the first two paragraphs (now missing) of a story/photo language/tape-recorded narration/pick up your answer/interview/ prioritizing/comparing/Debate/symposium/Group dynamics /sensitivity training games/Brain-storming/Counselling games/Radio play/Non-verbal communication games/Prayer service/Team games. It will be good to divide your students into micro-groups of four or five for the purpose of learning and help them critique their findings in all-group macro-sessions.  This will help them acquire many life-saving skills such as getting along with people, communication, leadership, etc.

6.  Conclusion: Give them roots and wings

The time has come when we should reconsider, evaluate and strengthen value education in our institutions. We have to take concrete steps to improve the quality of value education today, especially, when the young people are facing a value crisis, value confusion and conflict.

As you know the rational educational policy of India, despite its many drawbacks, insists that values, heritage and culture should be promoted through education in schools and colleges. Educational institutions should set new trends in this area and be a model to others. One of the ways to impart values through education is to design a course on human values and make it a part of the curriculum as well as make it a part of the valuation system.

Since teachers have to play a significant role in the value development of students, to all those who choose to be teachers, there is an urgent need to impart a strong and relevant value system. If the teacher has no sense of values, where shall the student seek guidance and direction from?

The teachers should be given adequate training to make them competent and effective value educators. And the institutions should provide the time and resources necessary so that value education classes may not be a burden for the teachers and the students, but a significant and beautiful part of their whole educational experience. Value education cannot be restricted to the few minutes spent every week in the classroom.  What matters is the whole set up of the institution – what it stands for, its policies, the values it upholds, the priorities chosen and the life and example of the staff members.

As we are looking forward with hope and optimism to the new decade and as we are considering the priorities in higher education in this decade, let us remember it is our responsibility to prepare our young people to meet the unknown challenges of the future. The education we provide should help them to appreciate our rich cultural heritage and values, to develop their own values and the value system which will guide them in their personal and social life and will form the foundation of the society we dream of. It is better to build children and youth than to repair people.


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2. Hall P. Brian. Value Clarification: A Learning Experience. New York: Paulist Press, 1973.
3. Simon B. Sidney, Howe, W. Leland, Kirshchenbaum HoWllfa. Value clarification. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1978.
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5. Values (Indian), Indian and Philosophical Annual (19S__860) Vol. 18; pp.15-32.
6. Raths, E. Louis, Harmin, and Simon a. Sldfi_y. Values and Teaching. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Men-it Publishing Co., 1966.
7. Mani Jacob, Resource Book for Value Education. New Delhi, 2002
8. New Frontiers in Education, Vol. XXIII, No. 2, April-June, 1993, p.235 – 237.
9.  University News, Vol. 41 No. 22, June 02-08, 2003, p.11 – 14.
10.University News, Vol. 35 No. 41, October 13, 1997, p.12.
11.University News, Vol. 39 No. 43, October 22-28, 2001, p.1 – 2.

“The most rewarding things you do in life are often the ones that look like they cannot be done.”
- Arnold Palmer

Towards Value Based Education

A.   F. Alferd mascarenhas

Education is the process by which a human person develops oneself as a woman or man. It helps man to grow in all dimensions, mastering and controlling emotions and the will. The final result of education is a cultured person. Cardinal Newman could write of a liberal education that makes the gentleman who has a cultivated intellect and a delicate taste, with emphasis on the individual and hardly any concern for social responsibility. The Church speaks of the formation of the individual with respect to the good of the society of which he is a member. From the emphasis on the development of the individual for this own sake we have come round to considering the benefits that should accrue to society through the education of the individual.

One part of education that is common to all colleges is that of providing the knowledge and skills that will enable the young people to fulfill their aspirations. The other aspect of education which is particular to Christian colleges is the field of values and with special relevance to the gospel, thus leading to a truly cultured person. Institutions of learning began in monasteries and cloisters or in and around renowned teachers. Today, however, they are largely arenas where thousands are herded through structured courses and jam-packed syllabi: many have turned into commercial ventures, largely ignoring the growth of the person.

In the light of these continually increasing pressures, it is vitally necessary for Christian institutions of learning to consider their special role in education in human values, in line with the Christian message. The overall aim of this education in values should (a) from the students consistent with his ultimate goal, (b) contribute to her intellectual, moral and physical development, (c) instill in her a sense of responsibility to society, (d) prepare her for acceptance of leadership, (e) train her to distinguish between right and wrong, (f) enable her recognise her relationship to God, (g) facilitate her living a life in conformity with the gospel and (h) instill in her the courage and the readiness to bear witness to God.

Education in Values

Values are what woman and men live by and what they would die for. The preamble of our constitution mentions justice, freedom, equality and fraternity- these are values that do not depend on the circumstances or the individual, to acquire a meaning. Christ proclaimed the same values- Justice – in the face of social, economic, political and religious structures that oppress man and dehumanise him : Freedom- from the internal compulsions and external pressures that constrain man, Equality- arising from the common fatherhood of God and Fraternity- of mutual concern.

One experiences difficulty in arriving at a single and comprehensive definition of value. In very simple words, a value is yardstick of beliefs that influence and guide our behavior. Values literally means something precious precious, dear, worthwhile. Values give direction and firmness and bring to 

Suddenly everyone is concerned about values and is talking about the urgency of introducing values into education and society. This, I submit is a misperception. Every society and every individual lives by values. But the degree of dissonance between individual and societal values and between what the older and younger generations see as values has caused the present feeling of crisis. The pace of change in patterns of living and consequently in patterns of thinking and behaviour has been so rapid as to cause 'shocks'. Education, by its very nature, as a preparation for life, has been and will continue to be value oriented. So, the question is not how to introduce values into education, but how to deal with the present crisis.

Science-based technology has brought spectacular advance in various fields of human endeavour. Ascent of market economy and the growth of consumerism has resulted in the emergence of the economic man, the material man, the man of transience. A code of morality based on what works, what profits, what is convenient or what is pleasant has emerged. Due to this, shrinkage has come about in the multi-dimensional man. His spiritual dimension (using the term without any religious connotation), his humaneness and his linkage with his fellowmen has given way to a brutishly selfish attitude. Money and what money can buy has gained the highest value for many and has become the operating principle.

In the society of the future that is emerging and whose frontiers remain largely unknown, it is not possible, to provide a package of values to the student for use in his later life. Unlike in the past, the degree of confrontational and conflictual situations has largely increased. There is marked erosion of personal freedom, brought about by mass hysteria induced by the powerful electronic print media. To maintain one's selfhood and identity; to find the resources to make personal choices and decisions will become one of the major problems. This is also the educational problem. Whether we deal with this crisis as a source of peril or (as the Chinese use the term crisis) as an opportunity depends on us. This represents the agony and the ecstasy of the problem.

Education at present, with its emphasis on ‘consumerism’ and competition for achievement, has sidelined its central concern for the full development of the social, moral, aesthetic and spiritual side of human personality.  Value education which needs to be looked upon as an essential aspect for the over all qualitative improvement of education, is being neglected to a great extent.

In the process of learning different curricular subjects, one imbibes certain values, habits of thought, qualities of mind that are concomitant to the pursuit of that particular knowledge field.  In other words, value education spans the entire learning, cultivation of imagination, strengthening of will and training of character.  When we so relate value education to education we can identify the approach as one of integrating values into the very fabric of education. Values such as love, cooperation, trust, acceptance, joy, dignity, respect for individual differences, compromise, truth, understanding and reverence must be taught because they are the key to the survival of the human species.  Teaching human values is teaching survival skills.
A year after gaining independence, in 1948, the Radhakrishnan Commission reported: “If we exclude spiritual training in our institutions, we would be untrue to our whole historical development”. Eleven years after, in 1959, the Sri Prakasa Committee exhorted: “Every effort must be made to teach students true moral values from the earliest stages of their educational life”. Nearly five years later, in 1964-66, the Kothari Education Commission Report (renowned as the Magna Carta of Indian Education) pinpointed the truth: “A serious defect in the school system is the absence of provision for education in social, moral and spiritual values. A national system of education…cannot afford to ignore this purposeful force.” About fifteen years later, in 1981, the ace educationist Dr. Karan Singh reasoned thus: “One of the major reasons for the erosion of our value system has been the lack of any value-orientation in our educational structure.  We have interpreted the term ‘secularism’ in such a way as to deny ourselves the advantage of even teaching basic moral and spiritual values that are subscribed to by all the great world religions”. 

Two years after, in 1983, the report of the Working Group (to review teachers’ training programme in the light of the need for value education) declared unambiguously that “the future of the human race is dependent exclusively upon a radical transformation of human consciousness and that one of the most important means of effecting this transformation is an integral value-oriented education”.  Soon after, in 1985, ‘Challenge of Education-A Policy Perspective’ (Government of India) spotlighted the progressive erosion of values and resultant pollution in public life. “The fact that this crisis of values is as pervasive in schools, colleges and universities, amongst teachers as well as students as in other walks of life - a highly dangerous development.” Next year, in 1986, ‘National Policy on Education’ document stated: “In our culturally plural society, education should foster universal and eternal values oriented towards the unity and integration of our people. Such value-education should help eliminate obscurantism, religious fanaticism, violence, superstition and fatalism.”

The National Policy on Education of 1986 has very strongly recommended the need for value education due to the following reasons.  Tremendous advance in science and technology has resulted in a complete change in the lifestyle of people. Science and Life in the future is going to be faster and more complex.  The students of today have to face such moral situations in future in which instead of depending on others, they may be required to take their own decisions. The present youth has special problems.  It has begun to question the conduct of elders especially leaders.  They do not see the relevance of the values preached.